Introduction to TCM

Basics of TCM

  • Yin-Yang | Five Elements

Zang-Fu Theories

  • Zang Organs | Fu Organs

Classification of Antineoplastic Herbal Medicines

Characteristics of Herbal Medicines


  • By Auscultation & Olfaction
  • By Inspection


Theories of Channels (Meridians) and Collaterals

Reference: A Modern View of the Immune System

Differentiation of Syndromes

  • 8 Principles
  • 6 Channels 4 Stages
  • Syndromes of Zang-Fu Organs


  • Exogenous | Pestilential
  • Pathogenic Factors
  • Emotional

Materia Medica

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Fire Heat and Mild Heat

Fire, heat, and mild heat are yang pathogenic factors. They are of the same nature but differ in intensity. Fire is the outcome of extreme heat. Mild heat is the least severe. These types of heat are sometimes termed pathogenic fire-heat or pathogenic mild heat and are characterized by an upward flaring and damaging of yin, with a tendency to disturb the blood system. The following are some special features:

Fire is characterized by upward flaring

Clinical manifestations are fever, thirst, profuse sweating, etc. If pathogenic fire travels inward to attack the mind, it causes irritability, anxiety, insomnia, or even mania, unconsciousness, and delirium in severe cases. Since pathogenic fire is likely to flare upward, the clinical manifestations may be mostly on the head and facial regions, such as a swelling and pain of the gums due to extreme stomach fire, ulcers of the tongue and mouth, headache, and redness, pain and swelling of the eyes.

Pathogenic fire is liable to consume yin fluid

Manifestations are fever, aversion to heat, accompanied by thirst with desire for drinks (especially cold drinks), dryness of throat and mouth, constipation, yellowish urine, etc.

Pathogenic fire may disturb the blood and cause extravasation

Mild cases will only have rapid pulse due to acceleration of blood circulation. In severe cases, the blood vessels and collaterals may be damaged, manifesting various hemorrhagic symptoms, such as vomiting of blood (hematemesis), nose bleeds (epistaxis), blood in the urine or stool, excessive menstrual flow, skin eruptions, external boils and ulcers, etc. The common syndrome caused by fire (heat) at the early stage is exterior-heat syndrome.

Main clinical manifestations: fever, mild aversion to cold, headache, sore throat, thirst, yellowish urine, dry stool, red tip and sides of the tongue, superficial and rapid pulse, etc. These symptoms are due to the invasion of fire (heat) on the body surface which consumes body fluids.

This concludes the discussion of the effect of the six exogenous pathological factors on the body. In general, these factors first damage the body surface and then manifest an exterior syndrome with the symptoms of fever and aversion to cold.

More about the other Exogenous Factors: Wind, Cold, Summer-heat, Damp, Dryness.

Traditional Chinese Medicine pages by Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA FRSPH

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With over 3000 years of experience, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has remain one of the many fascinating areas in ancient Chinese culture. First known to be documented in the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine, TCM is believed to have been practised in as early as 475 to 221 B.C. The field of working knowledge of TCM stretches from anything related to general healthcare practice to the philosophy of the mind, the logic of life, religion, and even to as far as cosmology and astronumerology. This is why in order to thoroughly understand the concepts behind TCM, one must be comprehensive in learning and embracing the Chinese culture as a whole.

Just as Douglas Hoff put it when he explained about accupuncture, "The systems of TCM uses the concepts of elements and meridians and are completely immersed in the Asian cosmology which takes shape through the religions." The meridian-brain mechanism, the fundamental working concept of acupuncture, in which the pain block from the message that the needle or burning cone of herbs gives to the point of stimulus, was only found centuries later by the West through science and technology.


Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA Thank you for visiting this TCM and acupuncture information website. If you have previously been to this website, you might have noticed that some of the pages on ancient historical ideas and holistic thinkings related to Chinese metaphysics are temporarily taken offline. This is because I will be revamping the whole website and be moving those information into a new \"Ancient Chinese Culture\" section so as to reflect a more current perspective on the interpretation of some of the fundamental concepts as well as to include some of the latest information in the area. But if you have just found this website for the very first time, I welcome you again and wish you could find what you require and, hopefully, you could also be benefitted from reading the articles I published on this website.

Please be patient and do come and check out this website frequently as it's being revamped.

Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA FRSPH

March 28, 2020.


This website is published, edited and designed by Raymond Cheng, and reflects only and only his personal views and opinions in his individual capacity. The information available at this website is not intended directly or by implication to either diagnose or treat any medical, emotional, or psychological condition or disorder. It is also not intended to create a physician-patient relationship between you and I or between you and Wyith Institute™ and The Office of Dr Raymond K K Cheng. The information here is not a substitute for advice and treatment provided by your physician or by another healthcare professional. It is always recommended that consultation with local healthcare providers be obtained for any of your specific health or medical concerns. Furthermore, any products that can be purchased (yet you can see I don't have much to sell here) through advertisers' banners or through links to other websites are not either explicitly or implicitly given any warranty or endorsement by me, my colleagues, Wyith Institute™ or any of its associated businesses.