Introduction to TCM

Basics of TCM

  • Yin-Yang | Five Elements

Zang-Fu Theories

  • Zang Organs | Fu Organs

Classification of Antineoplastic Herbal Medicines

Characteristics of Herbal Medicines


  • By Auscultation & Olfaction
  • By Inspection


Theories of Channels (Meridians) and Collaterals

Reference: A Modern View of the Immune System

Differentiation of Syndromes

  • 8 Principles
  • 6 Channels 4 Stages
  • Syndromes of Zang-Fu Organs


  • Exogenous | Pestilential
  • Pathogenic Factors
  • Emotional

Materia Medica

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Pathogenic cold is prevalent in winter and as a yin pathogenic factor, it is likely to consume yang qi. It also has the characteristics of contracture and stagnation. These are described as follows:

Pathogenic cold, as a Yin Pathogenic Factor

Pathogenic cold is liable to consume the yang qi of the body, producing cold syndromes. If the pathogenic cold attacks the body surface leading to a closing of the pores and obstruction of the flow of defensive yang qi, it is manifested by the symptom of aversion to cold. If pathogenic cold directly attacks the spleen and stomach it leads to the injury of spleen yang qi causing dysfunctions of the whole digestive process. The clinical manifestations are vomiting of clear water, diarrhea, coldness and pain of the epigastric and abdominal regions, pain relieved by warmth and aggravated by cold extremities, etc.

Pathogenic cold is characterized by Contracture and Stagnation

Invasion of pathogenic cold may cause contracture of the blood vessels and tendons, and obstruction of qi and blood circulation. This manifests as pain of a cold nature. Pathogenic cold may also cause a common cold with symptoms of sore aching joints and headache. Stagnation of cold in the liver channel leads to hernia of a cold nature, coldness, pain, and swelling of the testis. Pathogenic cold may also cause stomach ache, abdominal pain, etc.

Commonly seen syndromes caused by exogenous pathogenic cold are classified into: cold damaging the skin and muscle and cold damaging the spleen and stomach.

Cold Damaging the Skin and Muscle: fever, aversion to cold, no sweating, tense and superficial pulse, cough, asthma, nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, headache, and aching body.

Fever, aversion to cold, no sweating, tense and superficial pulse are caused by exogenous pathogenic cold that has blocked the spreading of wei (defensive) qi. The lung is closely related to the skin and hair. If exogenous pathogenic cold blocks the body surface and the wei qi can not spread, then lung qi fails to disperse and descend, causing nasal obstruction and discharge, cough, and asthma. Exogenous pathogenic cold will also obstruct the channels, resulting in the stagnation of qi and blood, which manifests as headache and aching body.

Exogenous Pathogenic Cold Injuring the Spleen and Stomach: vomiting, diarrhea, borborygmus, and abdominal pain.

This group of symptoms is caused by an over-intake of raw and cold food or the exposure of the abdomen to cold. As exogenous pathogenic cold injures the yang qi of the spleen and stomach, then the functions of ascending and descending qi by the spleen and stomach become disordered, causing a dysfunction of digestion and absorption with the symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, borborygmus, etc.

More about the other Exogenous Factors: Wind, Summer-heat, Damp, Dryness, Fire Heat and Mild Heat.

Traditional Chinese Medicine pages by Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA FRSPH

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With over 3000 years of experience, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has remain one of the many fascinating areas in ancient Chinese culture. First known to be documented in the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine, TCM is believed to have been practised in as early as 475 to 221 B.C. The field of working knowledge of TCM stretches from anything related to general healthcare practice to the philosophy of the mind, the logic of life, religion, and even to as far as cosmology and astronumerology. This is why in order to thoroughly understand the concepts behind TCM, one must be comprehensive in learning and embracing the Chinese culture as a whole.

Just as Douglas Hoff put it when he explained about accupuncture, "The systems of TCM uses the concepts of elements and meridians and are completely immersed in the Asian cosmology which takes shape through the religions." The meridian-brain mechanism, the fundamental working concept of acupuncture, in which the pain block from the message that the needle or burning cone of herbs gives to the point of stimulus, was only found centuries later by the West through science and technology.


Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA Thank you for visiting this TCM and acupuncture information website. If you have previously been to this website, you might have noticed that some of the pages on ancient historical ideas and holistic thinkings related to Chinese metaphysics are temporarily taken offline. This is because I will be revamping the whole website and be moving those information into a new \"Ancient Chinese Culture\" section so as to reflect a more current perspective on the interpretation of some of the fundamental concepts as well as to include some of the latest information in the area. But if you have just found this website for the very first time, I welcome you again and wish you could find what you require and, hopefully, you could also be benefitted from reading the articles I published on this website.

Please be patient and do come and check out this website frequently as it's being revamped.

Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA FRSPH

March 28, 2020.


This website is published, edited and designed by Raymond Cheng, and reflects only and only his personal views and opinions in his individual capacity. The information available at this website is not intended directly or by implication to either diagnose or treat any medical, emotional, or psychological condition or disorder. It is also not intended to create a physician-patient relationship between you and I or between you and Wyith Institute™ and The Office of Dr Raymond K K Cheng. The information here is not a substitute for advice and treatment provided by your physician or by another healthcare professional. It is always recommended that consultation with local healthcare providers be obtained for any of your specific health or medical concerns. Furthermore, any products that can be purchased (yet you can see I don't have much to sell here) through advertisers' banners or through links to other websites are not either explicitly or implicitly given any warranty or endorsement by me, my colleagues, Wyith Institute™ or any of its associated businesses.