Introduction to TCM

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Classification of Antineoplastic Herbal Medicines

Characteristics of Herbal Medicines

Diagnose

  • By Auscultation & Olfaction
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Theories of Channels (Meridians) and Collaterals

Reference: A Modern View of the Immune System

Differentiation of Syndromes

  • 8 Principles | 6 Channels 4 Stages
  • Syndromes of Zang-Fu Organs


Etiology

  • Exogenous | Pestilential | Emotional
  • Pathogenic Factors


Materia Medica



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The Twelve Regular Channels

The twelve regular channels are a general term for the three yin and three yang channels of the hand and the three yin and three yang channels of the foot.

1. The Lung Channel of the Hand-Taiyin

Flow sequence : Zhongfu Chize Kongzui Lieque Jingqu Taiyuan Yuji Shaosh-ang

The lung channel of the Hand Taiyin originates from the middle jiao and descends to connect with the large intestine (1). It turns around the upper orifice of the stomach (2), passing through the diaphragm (3) and enters the lung, forming part of the lung channels system (4) From the lung it flows upward to connect with the throat (5) and exits transversely from the arm pit (6). It then travels along the anterior-medial aspect of the upper arm (7), passing the cubital region and arrives at the Cunkou (8), the radial side of the wrist containing the radial artery for pulse palpation. Passing the thenar eminence (9), it travels along the radial border of the palm ending at the medial side of the tip of the thumb, Shaoshang (10). The branch separates from the Lieque (11) near to the wrist and goes directly to the radial side of the tip of the index finger, Shan-gyang (12) where it joins with the large intestine channels of the Hand-Yangming.

Main pathological changes: Cough, asthma, hemoptysis, sore throat, pain and fullness of the chest, pain in the clavicular region, pain along the anterior-medial aspect of the arm, and shoulder pain.

2. The Large Intestine Channel of the Hang-Yangming

Flow sequence : Shang-yang Erjian Sanjian Hegu Yangxi Pianli Wenliu Shou-sanli Quchi Binao Jianyu Futu Ying-xiang

The large intestine channel of the Hang-Yangming starts from the tip of the index finger, Shangyang (1). Running upward along the radical aspect of the index finger, it passes through the inter-space of the first and second metacarpal bones, and ascends along the lateral anterior aspect of the upper arm to the highest point of the shoulder (2). It then travels along the anterior border of the acromion up to the seventh cervical vertebrae (3), then descends to the supraclavicular fossa (4) and enters the thoracic cavity to connect with the lung (5). It passes through the diaphram (6) and enters the large intestine (7), forming part of the large intestine channel system.

The branch from the supraclavicular fossa travels upward to the neck (8) and to the cheek (9), and enters the lower teeth (10), then it curves around the upper lip and exits at the corner of the mouth (11), where it crosses the opposite large intestine channel of the Hand-Yangming at the philtrum (12). it ends at the side of the nose, Yingxiang (13) where is connects with the stomach channel of the Foot-Yangming.

Main pathological changes: lower toothache, sore throat, epistaxis, runny nose, dryness of the mouth, swelling and pain of the neck, pain or motor impairment of the anterior-lateral aspect of the arm, etc.

3. The Stomach Channel of the Foot-Yangming

Flow sequence : Chengqi Sibai Dicang Jiache Xiaguan Touwei Renying Quepen Rugen Liangmen Tianshu Shuidao Guilai Qichong Futu Liangqiu Dubi Zusanli Shang-juxu Tiaokou Xiajuxu Feng-long Jiexi Chang-yang Xiangu Neiting Lidui

The stomach channel of the Foot-Yangming starts from the lateral side of the nose, Yingxiang (1). It flows upward to the bridge of the nose where it meets the urinary bladder channel of the Foot-Taiyang, Jingming (2). Turning downward along the lateral side of the nose, it enters the upper gum (3). Curving around the lips (4), it meets Chengjiang, Ren, at the mentolabial groove (5). Then it travels to the posterior aspect of the mandible passing through the Daying (6) ascending in front of the ear and following the anterior hairline (7), it reaches the forehead (8).

The facial branch deviates from the anterior aspect of the Daying and runs downward to the Renying (9). It runs along the throat and enters the supraclavicular fossa (10). Going downward it passes through the diaphragm, enters the stomach (11), forming part of the stomach system, and connects with the spleen (12).

The straight line of the channels separates the supraclavicular fossa and runs downward along the middle mammillary line (13). It travels to the side of the umbilicus (14) and descends to the inguinal groove, where it enters Pt. Qichong (15).

The branch bifurcating from the lower orifice of the stomach (16) descends to the deep layer of the abdomen and joins the previous straight line of the channel at Pt. Qichong (15). Running downward it travels along the anterior aspect of the thigh and reaches the knee (17). From there is continues further down along the anterior border of the lateral aspect of the tibia to the dorsum of the foot and reaches the lateral side of the tip of the second toe, Lidui (18). Another branch splits from Pt. Zusanli (19), and descends downward to enter the lateral side of the middle toe (20).

The branch from the dorsum of the foot parts from Chongyang (21) and flows anteriorly to the medial side of the tip of the great toe, Yinbai (22), where it communicates with the spleen channel of the Foot-Taiyin.

Main pathological changes: borborygmus, abdominal distention, edema, stomach ache, vomiting, diabetes, deviated mouth and eyes, sore throat, epistaxis, high fever, perspiration, headache, mania, and pain along the course of the stomach channel.

4. The Spleen Channel of the Foot-Taiyin

Flow sequence : Yinbai Dadu Taibai Gongsun Shangqiu Sanyin-jiao Lougu Diji Yinling-quon Xuehai Chongmen Daheng Dabao

The spleen of the Foot-Taiyin starts from the medial aspect of the tip of the big toe, Yinbai (1). It travels along the medial aspect of the foot at the junction between the red and white skin, ascends anteriorly to the medial malleolus (2) up to the medial aspect of the leg (3). It crosses and goes in front of the liver channel of the foot-Jueyin 8 cun above the medial malleolus. passing through the anterior medial aspect of the thigh (4), it enters the abdomen (5) and the spleen (6), forming part of the spleen system, and connects with the stomach. From there it traverses the diaphragm (7), and runs alongside the esophagus. It arrives at the root of the tongue (8) and spreads over the lower surface of the tongue.

The branch goes from the stomach up through the diaphragm and flows into the heart (9) to join the heart channel of the Hand-Shaoyin.

Main pathological changes: epigastric pain, abdominal distension, vomiting after eating food, belching, loose stools, jaundice, lassitude, heaviness of limbs, stiffness of the tongue, coldness, swelling and pain of the lateral side of the lower limb, motor impairment of the big toe, etc.

5. The Heart Channel of the Hand-Shaoyin

Flow sequence : Jiquan Shaohai Lingdao Tongli Yinxi Shenmen Shaofu Shao-chong

The heart channel of the Hand-Shaoyin commences at the heart (1) and pertains to the "heart system." It descends to pass through the diaphragm (2) and connects with the small intestine (3).

The ascending branch splits from the "heart system" up to the lung (4). Then it turns downward to the axilla, Jiquan (5). From there is goes along the posterior border of the medial aspect of the upper arm (6). Passing through the cubital region (9), it descends to the pisiform region proximal to the palm and enters the palm (8). Then it ends at the medial aspect of the tip of the little finger and links with the small intestine channel of the Hand-Taiyang. The branch splits from the "heart system" alongside the esophagus (9) to connect with the "eye system" (10).

Main pathological changes: Pain in the heart region, chest pains, sweating, heart palpitation, insomnia, dry throat, thirst, inner side arm pain, cold extremities, hot palms.

6. The Small Intestine Channel of the Hand-Taiyang

Flow sequence : Shaoze Qiangu Houxi Wangu Yanggu Yanglao Zhizheng Xiaohai Jianzhen Naoshu Tianzong Tian-chuang Quanliao Tinggong

The small intestine channel of the Hand-Taiyang starts from the ulnar aspect of the tip of the little finger, Shaoze (1) and travels along the ulnar border of the hand dorsum upward to the posterior border of the lateral aspect of the upper arm (2). It passes through the cubital region curving around the scapular region (3) where it meets the Du channel at Pt. Dazhui of Du (4). Then turning downward to the supraclavicular fossa (5), it connects with the heart (6). Alongside the esophagus, it passes through the diaphragm (7), reaches the stomach (8) and enters the small intestine (9) forming part of its channel system.

The branch separates from the supraclavicular fossa and ascends to the neck (10) and further up to the cheek (11). Going through the outer canthus, it turns into the ear, Tinggong (12).

Another branch deviates from the cheek. Running upward to the lower border of the infraorbital region, it reaches the inner canthus Pt. Jingming (13) to communicate with the urinary bladder channel of the Foot-Taiyang.

Main pathological changes: Ringing in the ears, yellowish eye coloring, sore throat, swelling and pain under the jaw and in the neck, shoulder and upper external arm pain, abdominal pain and distension, frequent urination, etc.

7. The Urinary Bladder Channel of the Foot-Taiyang

Flow sequence : Jingming Zanzhu Tianzhu Dazhu Fengmen Feishu Jueyin Xinshu Dushu Geshu Ganshu Danshu Pishu Weishu Sanjiao-shu Shenshu Dachang-shu Xiaoch-angshu Panggu-angshu Baihuan-shu Ciliao Chengfu Yinmen Weiyang Weizhang Gaohu-angshu Zhibian Cheng-shan Feiyang Fuyang Kunlun Pucan Shenmai Jinmen Jinggu Shugu Zhutong-gu Zhiyin

The urinary bladder channel of the Foot-Taiyang originates from the inner canthus, Jingming (1). Passing through the forehead, it flows up to the vertex and meets the du channel at Pt. Baihui of Du (2).

A branch splits from the vertex and goes bilaterally down to the upper corner of the ear (3). The straight line enters and connects with the brain from the vertex. It exits the brain at the neck region (4) and bifurcates into two lines. One line runs straight downward (1.5 cun lateral to the mid-line of the back) to the lumbar region (5), entering the body cavity to connect with the kidney and join with the urinary bladder (6), forming a part of its channel system. From there it descends along the posterior aspect of the thigh and ends in the popliteal fossa (7). Another line from the posterior aspect of the neck runs downward along the medial border of the scapula (3 cun lateral to the back mid-line) (8). Passing through the gluteal region (9), it meets the proceeding branch descending from the next region to the lumbar region in the popliteal fossa (10). From there it descends to the posterior aspect of the gastrocnemius muscle (11) and further to the lateral posterior side of the tip of the little toe, Zhiyin (12), where it communicates with the kidney channel of the Foot-Shaoyin.

Main pathological changes: dysuria, enuresis, mania or depression, malaria, eye pains, lacrymation on exposure to the wind, nasal obstruction, runny nose, epistaxis, headache, stiffness of the neck, pain of the lower back and hip region and along the course of this channel on the posterior side of the leg.

8. The Kidney Channel of the Foot-Shaoyin

Flow sequence : yongquan Rangu Taixi Dazhong Shuiquan Zhaohai Fuliu Jiaoxin Zhubin Yingu Henggu Dahe Shufu

The kidney channel of the Foot-Shaoyin starts from the interior aspect of the little toe (1), and runs obliquely towards the sole, Yongquan (2). Emerging from the lower aspect of the tuberosity of the navicular bone (3), it travels behind the medial malleolus and enters the heel (4). Ascending along the medial side of the leg (5), it passes the medial side of the popliteal fossa and goes further upward along the posterior-medial aspect of the thigh (6). Penetrating through the vertebral column of the lumbar region, it enters the kidney (7), forming part of its channel system, and links with the urinary bladder (8).

The straight line of the channel comes out from the kidney. It ascends passing through the liver (9) and diaphragm (10), enters the lung (11), and runs alongside the throat (12), ending at the root of the tongue.

A branch springs from the lung, links with the heart (13), and flows into the chest to communicate with the pericardium channel of the Hand-Jueyin.

Main pathological changes: shortness of breath, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, dizziness, vertigo, dryness of the tongue, sore throat, low back pain, frequent urination, enuresis, spermatorrhea, impotence, dysuria, constipation or diarrhea, irregular menstruation, pain of the lumbar spine or along the posterior-medial side of the thigh, weakness of the lower limbs, feverish sensation of palms and soles, etc.

9. The Pericardium Channel of the Hand-Jueyin

Flow sequence : Tianch Quze Ximen Jianshi Neiguan Daling Laogong Zhong-chang

The pericardium channel of the Hand-Jueyin originates in the chest (1). It enters the pericardium, then descends to pass through the diaphragm (2). Running through the abdomen, it connects successively with the upper, middle, and lower jiao.

A branch springs from the chest (1) and emerges from the costal region to a point 3 cun below the anterior axillary fold, Tianchi (3). It then ascends to the axillary fossa and along the medial aspect of the upper arm (4), it runs downward between the lung channel of the Hand-Taiyin and the heart channel of the Hand-Shaoyin (5). After emerging in the cubital fossa, it goes further downward to the forearm between the tendons of the m. palmaris longus and m. flexor carpi radialis (6). It enters the palm (7) and passes along the middle finger to its tip, Zhongchong (8).

Another branch splits from the palm at Pt. Laogong (P. 8) (9), runs along the ring finger to its tip, Quanchong (10) and communicates with the sanjiao channel of the Hand-Shaoyang.

Main pathological changes: palpitation, irritability, pain in the precardiac region, stuffy chest, mental disorder, swelling and pain of the axillary region, spasm or contracture of the elbow, feverish sensation in the palm, etc.

10. The Sanjiao Channel of the Hand-Shaoyang

Flow sequence : Guanchong Yemen Zhongzhu Yangch Waiguan Zhigou Huizong Sangany Jianliao Yifeng Jiaosun Ermen Sizhukong

The sanjiao channel of the Hand-Shaoyang originates from the tip of the ring finger, Guanchong (1). It travels upward between the fourth and fifth metacarpal bones and along the dorsal side of the wrist and the lateral side of the forearm between the radius and ulna, it passes through the olecranon (2). Then it runs along the lateral aspect of the upper arm and reaches the shoulder region (3) where it travels across and behind the gall bladder channel of the Foot-Shaoyang. Crossing over the shoulder, it enters the supraclavicular fossa (4) and spreads in the chest to connect with the pericardium (5). It then proceeds through the diaphragm (6) down the abdomen, and communicates with the upper, middle, and lower jiao forming a part of the sanjiao channel system.

A branch springs from the chest (7) and runs upward exiting from the supraclavicular fossa, and ascends to the neck (8). Running along the posterior border of the ear (9), it crosses from the superior aspect of the ear to the corner of the forehead (10). Then it turns downward to the cheek and terminates in the infraorbital region (11).

Another branch arises from the anterior aspect of the ear 912). It crosses the former branch at the cheek and reaches the outer canthus (13) to link with the gall bladder channel of the Foot-Shaoyang.

Main pathological changes: deafness, ringing in the ears, sore throat, pain of the outer canthus, swelling of the cheek, pain of the retroauricular region, shoulder and lateral aspects to the upper arm and elbow, dysuria, edema, enuresis, abdominal distension, etc.

11. The Gall Bladder Channel of the Foot-Shaoyang

Flow sequence : Tongzi-liao Tinghui Yangbai Fengchi Riyue Jingmen Daimai Juliao Huantiao Fengshi Yangl-ingquan Yangjiao Waiqiu Guang-ming Yangfu Xuanzhong Qiuxu Zulinqi Xiaxi Zuqiao-yin

The gall bladder channel of the Foot-Shaoyang starts from the outer canthus, Tongziliao (1) and ascends to the corner of the forehead, Hanyan (2) and then winds downward to the retroauricular region, Fengchi (3). It then runs along the lateral side of the neck emerging in front of the sanjiao channel of the Hand-Shaoyang (4). It traverses behind the sanjiao channel of the Hand-Shaoyang at the shoulder region and travels further down to the supraclavicular fossa (5).

The retroauricular branch passes through the ear (6) and emerges in front of the ear at the posterior side of the out canthus (7). A branch comes out from the outer canthus (8), runs downward to the Daying (9) and meets the sanjiao channel of the Hand-Shaoyang at the infraorbital region 910). Descending and passing through the Jiach (11), it reaches to the neck and enters the supraorbital fossa to meet with the main line of the channel (12). From there it further descends and enters the chest (13), passes through the diaphragm to connect with the liver (14) and enters the gall bladder (15), forming part of its channel system. It then travels interiorly in the hypochondriac region, emerging at the lateral side of the lower abdomen near the femoral artery in the inguinal region (16). Then it curves along the margin of the public hair and runs transversely into the hip region, Huantiao (17).

The straight line of the channel travels downward from the supraclavicular fossa (18), and further down to the axillary region (19). Along the lateral side of the chest (20) and through the free ends of the floating ribs (21), it meets the former branch at the hip region (22). It then travels downward along the lateral side of thigh to the lateral side of the knee (23). Further descending along the anterior aspect of the fibula (24), it reaches the lower end of the fibula, and the anterior aspect of the lateral malleolus (25). Following the dorsum of the foot, it terminates at the lateral side of the fourth toe's tip, Foot-Qiaoyin (26).

The branch splitting from Foot-Linqi (27) runs between the 1st and 2nd metatarsal bones to the hairy area of the big toe, Dadun (28) where it communicates with the Liver channel of the Foot-Jueyin.

Main pathological changes: alternate chills and fever, bitter taste in the mouth, blurred vision, vertigo, hypochondriac pain, migraine, pain in the supraclavicular fossa, pain of the outer canthus and axillary fossa, malaria, pain along the lateral side of the thigh, knee and leg, pain and motor impairment of the fourth toe, etc.

12. The Liver Channel of the Foot-Jueyin

Flow sequence : Dadun Xingjian Taichong Zhong-feng Ligou Zhongdu Ququan Zhongmen Qimen

The liver channel of the Foot-Jueyin originates from the dorsal hairy region of the big toe, Dadun (1). Ascending along the dorsum of the foot, it flows further upward to the anterior aspect of the medial malleolus (2) where is crosses behind the spleen channel of the Foot-Taiyin to the area 8 cun above the medial malleolus (3). Then it runs upward to the medial side of the knee (4) and along the medial aspect of the thigh (5) into the pubic hair region (6). From there it curves around the external genitalia and travels up to the lower abdomen (7). Alongside the stomach, it enters the liver (6), forming part of its channel system, and connects with the gall bladder (9). Then it proceeds upward to pass through the diaphram (10) and disperses in the costal and hypochondriac region (11). Ascending along the posterior aspect of the throat (12), it emerges in the nasopharynx region (12) to connect with the "eye system" (13). Extending further upward, it exits from the forehead (14) and meets the Du channel at the vertex (15).

A branch arising from the "eye system" descends to the cheek (16) and curves around the internal surface of the lips (17). another branch separating from the liver (18), passes through the diaphragm and enters the lung (19) to link with the lung channel of the Hand-Taiyin.

Main pathological changes: pain and distension of the hypochondrium, stuffiness of the chest, vomiting, diarrhea, vertex headache, hernia, dysuria enuresis, pain and distension of the lateral lower abdomen, lumbago, irregular menstruation, mental disorders, etc.




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WHAT IS TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE?
DI63-048 (c) Image DJ Image Dictionary
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With over 3000 years of experience, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has remain one of the many fascinating areas in ancient Chinese culture. First known to be documented in the Yellow Emperor's Canon of Medicine, TCM is believed to have been practised in as early as 475 to 221 B.C. The field of working knowledge of TCM stretches from anything related to general healthcare practice to the philosophy of the mind, the logic of life, religion, and even to as far as cosmology and astronumerology. This is why in order to thoroughly understand the concepts behind TCM, one must be comprehensive in learning and embracing the Chinese culture as a whole.

Just as Douglas Hoff put it when he explained about accupuncture, "The systems of TCM uses the concepts of elements and meridians and are completely immersed in the Asian cosmology which takes shape through the religions." The meridian-brain mechanism, the fundamental working concept of acupuncture, in which the pain block from the message that the needle or burning cone of herbs gives to the point of stimulus, was only found centuries later by the West through science and technology.

 
MESSAGE FROM THE EDITOR – OCTOBER 2012

Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA Thank you for visiting this TCM and acupuncture information website. If you have previously been to this website, you might have noticed that some of the pages on ancient historical ideas and holistic thinkings related to Chinese metaphysics are temporarily taken offline. This is because I have recently started to revamp the whole website so as to reflect a more current perspective on the interpretation of some of the fundamental concepts as well as to include some of the latest information in the area. But if you have just found this website for the very first time, I welcome you again and wish you could find what you require and, hopefully, you could also be benefitted from reading the articles I published on this website.

Please be patient and do come and check out this website frequently as it's being revamped.

Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA FRSA FRSPH

March 28, 2014.

IMPORTANT NOTICE AND DISCLAIMER

This website is published, edited and designed by Raymond Cheng, PhD DPA and reflects only and only his personal views and opinions in his individual capacity. The information available at this website is not intended directly or by implication to either diagnose or treat any medical, emotional, or psychological condition or disorder. It is also not intended to create a physician-patient relationship between you and I or between you and The Commentary Limited. The information here is not a substitute for advice and treatment provided by your physician or by another healthcare professional. It is always recommended that consultation with local healthcare providers be obtained for any of your specific health or medical concerns. Furthermore, any products that can be purchased (yet you can see I don't have much to sell here) through advertisers' banners or through links to other websites are not either explicitly or implicitly given any warranty or endorsement by me, my colleagues, The Commentary Limited or any of its associated businesses.