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Blood

Blood is transformed from the essence of food via the digestion and absorption of the spleen and stomach. According to the Lingshu, "When the middle jiao receives food and water, it transforms it into red fluid which is called blood." After its formation, blood circulates incessantly throughout the body to nourish the zang and fu organs, the skin, the muscles, tendons, and bones in order to maintain their normal physiological activities.

Blood is the substantial basis for mental activities. Only when there the qi and blood are abundant can there be high spirits and clear minds. So in the Suwen it states, "Blood and qi are the spirits of man." Pathological changes of blood cause symptoms of palpitation, insomnia, unconsciousness, delirium, etc.

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